Discover the rich and diverse culinary traditions of Chile, a country that offers a variety of dishes and ingredients that reflect its geography, identity, and heritage.
Chilean gastronomy is more than just food. It is a way of expressing the culture, history, and identity of a country that spans over 4,000 kilometers of coastline, mountains, valleys, and deserts. From the indigenous peoples to the Spanish Conquistadores, from the European immigrants to the Latin American neighbors, from the global influences to the local traditions and innovations, Chilean gastronomy has been shaped by many sources and has evolved over time. In this blog post, we will explore the main aspects of Chilean gastronomy, such as its definition, origins, products, regions, dishes, wines, and circuits. We will also give you some tips on how to enjoy the best of Chilean cuisine, whether you are visiting the country or just curious about its gastronomic wonders.
What is gastronomy?
Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, art, science, and society. It is not only about cooking and eating, but also about understanding the history, geography, anthropology, sociology, and aesthetics of food. Gastronomy is a way of appreciating and preserving the culinary traditions and innovations of different regions and peoples, proving to be a stronger cultural force among the peoples of the world than linguistic or other influences.
Gastronomy is thus a cultural phenomenon that evolves and is influenced by constant changes. It reflects the diversity and unity of the human condition, as well as the creativity and innovation of the human spirit. Gastronomy is also a source of pleasure, enjoyment, and socialization, as well as a way of expressing identity, values, and beliefs.
What are the origins of Chilean gastronomy?
Chilean gastronomy is the result of a long and complex process of fusion and adaptation of different culinary traditions and influences. The main sources that shape the current Chilean gastronomy are:
- The indigenous peoples: The original inhabitants of Chile, such as the Mapuche, Aymara, Atacameño, Rapa Nui, and others, contributed with their ancestral knowledge of the native flora and fauna, as well as their techniques of cultivation, hunting, fishing, and preservation of food. Some of the products that they introduced to Chilean gastronomy are maize, potatoes, quinoa, beans, squash, tomatoes, peppers, avocados, chirimoyas, lucumas, and llamas, among others. Some of the dishes that they influenced are cazuela, pastel de choclo, humitas, charquicán, curanto, and empanadas, just to name a few. Later, we will say a thing or two about some of these preparations.
- The colonial and Hispanic legacy: The Spanish Conquistadores and their successors brought with them their culinary traditions, as well as products and spices from Europe, Africa, and Asia. They also introduced livestock, such as cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens, and horses, as well as crops, such as wheat, barley, oats, rice, olives, grapes, citrus fruits, and sugar cane, among others. Some of the dishes that they influenced are asado, caldillo, escabeche, arroz con leche, alfajores, and churros, among others.
- The European immigration: During the 19th and 20th centuries, Chile received waves of immigrants from various European countries, such as Germany, France, Italy, England, Switzerland, Croatia, and the Levant. They brought with them their culinary traditions, as well as products and techniques that enriched the Chilean gastronomy. Some of the dishes that they influenced are kuchen, strudel, crêpes, pasta, sandwiches, and fondue, to name some.
- The Latin American integration: In recent decades, Chile has become more open and connected to its Latin American neighbors, such as Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and others. They have shared their culinary traditions, as well as products and flavors that have added diversity and fusion to Chilean gastronomy. Some of the dishes that they influenced are ceviche, arepas, and Peruvian-style pisco sour, among others.
- The global trends: Chile is also part of the globalized world, where new trends and influences emerge and spread rapidly. Chilean gastronomy has been influenced by the cuisines of other regions, such as Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and others. Chilean gastronomy has also adopted new concepts and practices, such as organic, vegetarian, vegan, gluten-free, and fusion cuisine, among others.
What are the main products of Chilean gastronomy?
Chilean gastronomy is characterized by its variety and quality of products, both native and introduced, that reflect its diverse geography and climate. Chile has a privileged natural environment, with abundant and fresh resources from the sea, the land, and the air. Some of the main products of Chilean gastronomy are:
- Seafood: Chile has a long coastline, entirely crossed by the cold Humboldt Current, with rich and diverse marine fauna. Some of the seafood that is consumed in Chile are fish, such as salmon, hake, conger, sea bass, and anchovy, among others; shellfish, such as clams, mussels, oysters, scallops, and abalone, etc; crustaceans, such as shrimp, crab, lobster, and crayfish, among others; and cephalopods, such as squid, octopus, and cuttlefish, and others. Seafood is prepared in various ways, such as fried, grilled, baked, stewed, or raw, and accompanied by sauces, salads, or bread.
- Meat: Chile has a large and varied livestock production, with different types of meat, such as beef, pork, lamb, goat, and poultry, among others. Meat is prepared in various ways, such as roasted, grilled, boiled, or fried, and accompanied by sauces, salads, or potatoes. Meat is also used to make sausages, such as longaniza, chorizo, prieta, and arrollado, to name some; and cold cuts, such as ham, salami, mortadella, and paté, very popular options on any Chilean family table. Here, the Spanish and German influence are notorious.
- Vegetables: Chile has a fertile and diverse agriculture, with different types of vegetables, such as potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, onions, garlic, carrots, lettuce, cabbage, spinach, and corn, among others. Vegetables are consumed raw, cooked, or pickled, and used to make salads, soups, stews, pies, or casseroles. Vegetables are also used to make sauces, such as pebre, chancho en piedra, salsa verde, and salsa de tomate, etc.
- Fruits: Chile, as an agricultural powerhouse, boasts a wide and varied fruit production, with different types of fruits, such as apples, pears, peaches, plums, cherries, grapes, oranges, lemons, kiwis, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, and chirimoyas, and you can find many of them in supermarkets all over the world. Fruits are consumed fresh, dried, or canned, and used to make juices, jams, compotes, or desserts. Fruits are also used to make wines, liquors, and cocktails, such as pisco, chicha, pipeño, and terremoto, and others.
- Dairy products: Chile has a significant and diverse dairy production, with different types of dairy products, such as milk, cheese, butter, cream, yogurt, and ice cream, etc. Dairy products are consumed as beverages, snacks, or desserts, and used to make sauces, soups, or cakes. Dairy products are also used to make cheese-based dishes, such as queso fresco, goat cheese, and quesillo, among others.
- Bread and pastries: Chile ranks in third place in the world for per capita bread consumption and has a strong and varied tradition of bread and pastries, with different types of bread, such as marraqueta, hallulla, dobladita, pan amasado, among others; and pastries, such as sopaipillas, calzones rotos, berlines, and chilenitos, etc. Bread and pastries are consumed as breakfast, lunch, or snack, and accompanied by butter, cheese, jam, manjar, or pebre. Bread and pastries are also used to make sandwiches, such as churrasco, Barros Luco, Barros Jarpa, and chacarero, among others.
What are the main regions of Chilean gastronomy?
Chilean gastronomy is also characterized by its regional variations, that reflect the different geographical, climatic, and cultural conditions of each zone. Chile can be divided into five major gastronomic regions, each with its own products, dishes, and traditions:
- The North: The northern region of Chile comprises from the Parinacota and Tarapacá regions to the Antofagasta and Atacama regions, where the desert and the altiplano dominate the landscape. The gastronomy of this region is influenced by the indigenous and Andean cultures, as well as the massive mining and fishing activities. Some of the products that are typical of this region are quinoa, llama meat, charqui, cochayuyo, and rica rica, among others. Some of the dishes that are typical of this region are patasca, calapurca, chumbeque sweet, and sopa de guatitas.
- The Central Valleys: The central valleys region of Chile comprises the Coquimbo, Valparaíso, Santiago Metropolitan, O’Higgins, and Maule regions, where the Mediterranean climate and the fertile soil favor the agriculture and viticulture. The gastronomy of this region is influenced by the colonial and European cultures, as well as the urban and rural lifestyles. Some of the products that are typical of this region are grapes, olives, nuts, cheese, honey, and wheat, among others. Some of the dishes that are typical of this region are empanadas, pastel de choclo, humitas, cazuela, asado, and charquicán, among others. Sidenote: Chilean awarded olive oil come from this area.
- The South: The southern region of Chile comprises the Biobío, Araucanía, Los Ríos, and Los Lagos regions, where the temperate climate and the abundant rainfall favor the forestry and livestock. The gastronomy of this region is influenced by the indigenous and German cultures, as well as the coastal and inland activities. Many German settlers began inhabitating this regions from the mid 19th century. Some of the products that are typical of this region are potatoes, apples, berries, cheese, milk, and meat, among others. Some of the dishes that are typical of this region are curanto, milcao, chapalele, kuchen, strudel, and crêpes, among others.
- The Austral or Patagonia: The austral region of Chile comprises the Aysén and Magallanes regions, where the cold climate and the rugged terrain favor the fishing and sheep farming. The gastronomy of this region is influenced by the indigenous and Croatian cultures, as well as the maritime and continental environments. Some of the products that are typical of this region are salmon, hake, king crab, mussels, lamb, and calafate, to name a few. Some of the pre that are typical of this region are cordero al palo, cazuela de cordero, centolla a la parmesana, and calafate sour, among others.
- The Islands: The insular region of Chile comprises Rapa Nui (Easter Island) and the Juan Fernández archipelago, where the tropical climate and the isolated location favor the exotic and endemic flora and fauna. The gastronomy of this region is influenced by the Polynesian and British cultures, as well as the volcanic and coral ecosystems. Some of the products that are typical of this region are tuna, swordfish, lobster, taro, banana, and pineapple, among others. Some of the dishes that are typical of this region are po’e, umu, and lobster pie, among others.
What are the main dishes of Chilean gastronomy?
Chilean gastronomy offers a variety of dishes and ingredients that reflect its diversity and unity. Some of the dishes are regional, while others are national. Some of the dishes are traditional, while others are modern. Some of the dishes are simple, while others are elaborate. Chileans love to savor them all year, but there is a rise in its consumption during National Holidays (Independence Day) each September 18th. Here are some of the main dishes of Chilean gastronomy, those that cross over regions (although with own iterations) along with their descriptions and ingredients:
- Empanadas: Empanadas are one of the most popular and emblematic dishes of Chilean gastronomy. They are pastries that can be of many sorts, so they are filled with different ingredients, such as meat, cheese, seafood, or vegetables, and baked or fried. They can be cooked in the oven or deep fried, depending on the filling, kind of dough and regional version. The most common type of empanada is the empanada de pino, which is filled with minced beef, onion, raisins, olives, and hard-boiled eggs. Empanadas are usually eaten as a snack, appetizer, or main course, and accompanied by pebre, a spicy sauce made with tomato, onion, cilantro, garlic, and chili pepper.
- Pastel de choclo: Pastel de choclo is another typical and delicious dish of Chilean gastronomy. It is a casserole made with a layer of minced beef, chicken, onion, raisins, olives, and hard-boiled eggs, covered with a layer of mashed corn, sprinkled with sugar, and baked. Pastel de choclo is usually consumed as a main course, and sided by ensalada chilena, a salad made with tomato, onion, cilantro, and vinegar.
- Humitas: Humitas are a traditional and nutritious dish of Chilean gastronomy. They are made with fresh corn, onion, basil, butter, and salt, ground into a paste, wrapped in corn husks, and boiled or steamed. Humitas are usually eaten as a main course, and accompanied by tomato, onion, or pebre.
- Cazuela: Cazuela is a hearty and comforting dish of Chilean gastronomy. It is a soup or stew made with meat, such as beef, chicken, lamb, or pork, and vegetables, such as potatoes, squash, corn, carrots, and green beans, cooked in a broth seasoned with salt, pepper, oregano, and parsley. Cazuela is usually eaten as a main course.
- Asado: Asado is a festive and social dish of Chilean gastronomy. It is a barbecue of different types of meat, such as beef, pork, lamb, or chicken, grilled over charcoal or wood, and seasoned with salt, pepper, garlic, and merkén, a smoked chili pepper. Asado is usually eaten as a main course, and accompanied by salads, sauces, bread, and wine, beer or your preferred cocktail like piscola (pisco and cola drink in a long glass with a couple of ice cubes).
- Charquicán: Charquicán is a simple and tasty dish of Chilean gastronomy. It is a stew made with meat, such as beef, lamb, or horse, and vegetables, such as potatoes, squash, corn, carrots, green beans, and onion, cooked in a pot with water, salt, pepper, and cumin. Charquicán is usually eaten as a main course, and accompanied by eggs, cheese, or pebre.
- Curanto: Curanto is a unique and ancient dish of Chilean gastronomy, with its origins in Chiloé, southern Chile. It is a feast of seafood, such as clams, mussels, oysters, scallops, and fish, and meat, such as pork, chicken, and sausage, and vegetables, like potatoes, squash, and cabbage, and local bread-type pastries, such as milcao and chapalele, cooked in a hole in the ground, covered with hot stones, leaves, and earth. Curanto is usually eaten as a main course, and accompanied by chicha, a fermented drink made from grapes or apples.
- Kuchen: A German loan, Kuchen is a sweet and delightful dish of Chilean gastronomy. It is a cake made with flour, butter, eggs, sugar, and yeast, and filled with different ingredients, such as fruits, cheese, cream, or jam. The most common types of kuchen are the apple kuchen, the cheese kuchen, and the plum kuchen. Kuchen is usually eaten as a dessert, and accompanied by tea or coffee.
- Sopaipillas: Sopaipillas are a crispy and addictive dish of Chilean gastronomy. They are discs of dough made with squash meal and flour, water, salt, and lard, and fried in oil. Sopaipillas are usually eaten as a snack, appetizer, or dessert, and accompanied by pebre, manjar, or honey.
- Caldillo de congrio: Caldillo de congrio is a flavorful and aromatic dish of Chilean gastronomy. It is a soup made with conger eel, a large and white fish, and vegetables, such as potatoes, onion, garlic, carrot, and celery, and herbs, such as parsley, cilantro, and bay leaf, and wine, cooked in a pot with water, salt, and pepper. Caldillo de congrio is usually preferred as a main course, and according to popular culture, it is the best “antidote” to New Year’s or any hangover!
What are the main wines and drinks of Chilean gastronomy?
Chilean Wine: A History of Tradition and Innovation
Chile is a country with a long and rich tradition of wine production, dating back to the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores and missionaries brought the first grapevines to these lands. Since then, Chilean wine has evolved from a craft to an industry, from a local to a global product, and from a classic to a modern style.
The history of Chilean wine can be divided into three main periods: the colonial, the republican, and the contemporary. Each period has its own characteristics, challenges, and achievements, reflecting the social, economic, and cultural changes that the country has experienced over the centuries.
The colonial period (1548-1810) was marked by the introduction and adaptation of the European grape varieties, especially the País, which was brought by the Jesuit priest Francisco de Carabantes in 1548. This variety, also known as Listán Prieto or Mission, was the most widely planted and used for wine production until the 19th century. The wine was mainly consumed by the local population, the clergy, and the colonial authorities, and was also exported to Peru and other Spanish territories. The wine industry was regulated by the Spanish crown, which imposed taxes and restrictions on the trade and consumption of wine.
The republican period (1810-1973) was characterized by the independence and modernization of the country, which also affected the wine industry. The most important event was the introduction of the French grape varieties, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Carmenere, Sauvignon Blanc, and Chardonnay, which were brought by the wealthy landowners who traveled to Europe in the mid-19th century. These varieties, along with the traditional País, gave rise to a diversity of styles and qualities of wine, ranging from the popular pipeño to the fine reserva. The wine industry also benefited from the development of the transportation, communication, and irrigation systems, which facilitated the expansion and distribution of the vineyards and the wines. The wine consumption increased both domestically and internationally, reaching new markets such as Europe and North America.
The contemporary period (1973-present) is defined by the transformation and innovation of the wine industry, which has faced new challenges and opportunities in the globalized world. The most significant event was the phylloxera crisis, which affected the European vineyards in the late 19th century, but spared the Chilean ones, thanks to the natural isolation and protection of the Andes, the Pacific Ocean, the Atacama Desert, and the Patagonia. This gave Chile a unique advantage, as it preserved its original and ungrafted vines, which are considered a treasure and a source of identity for the Chilean wine. The wine industry also underwent a technological and scientific revolution, which improved the quality and diversity of the wine, as well as a marketing and branding strategy, which increased the recognition and reputation of the wine. The wine production and exportation reached record levels, making Chile one of the largest and most important wine producers and exporters in the world.
Chile is a country with a great diversity of wine regions, each with its own characteristics and varieties. Here are some of the main regions and their wines:
- Atacama: This is the northernmost and driest wine region of Chile, where the grapes are irrigated by the Copiapó and Huasco rivers. The main varieties are País, Moscatel, and Pedro Jiménez, which are used to produce pisco, Chile’s traditional brandy, and some sweet wines.
- Coquimbo: This region includes the Elqui, Limarí, and Choapa valleys, which have a semi-arid climate influenced by the ocean and the mountains. The main varieties are Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Carmenere, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon Blanc, which produce fresh and fruity wines with mineral notes.
- Valparaíso: This region comprises the Aconcagua, Casablanca, and San Antonio valleys, which have a Mediterranean climate with warm days and cool nights. The main varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Carmenere, Syrah, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon Blanc, which produce elegant and complex wines with good acidity and balance.
- Central Valley: This is the largest and most traditional wine region of Chile, which includes the Maipo, Rapel, Curicó, and Maule valleys. The climate is Mediterranean with a wide range of temperatures and soils. The main varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Carmenere, Malbec, Carignan, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon Blanc, which produce full-bodied and aromatic wines with a long aging potential.
- Southern Region: This region covers the Itata, Bío-Bío, and Malleco valleys, which have a cool and rainy climate with a strong influence of the ocean and the volcanoes. The main varieties are País, Cinsault, Muscat, Riesling, Gewürztraminer, Pinot Noir, and Chardonnay, which produce light and delicate wines with floral and herbal notes.
- Austral Region: This is the newest and most experimental wine region of Chile, which extends to the Cautín and Osorno valleys, near the Patagonia. The climate is cold and humid, with a short growing season and a high risk of frost. The main varieties are Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Riesling, which produce crisp and refreshing wines with high acidity and low alcohol.
Chile is a country that is constantly innovating and exploring new terroirs, varieties, and styles of wine, offering a wide range of options for the consumers. Chile is also a country that invites the visitors to discover its wine culture and heritage, through the various wine tours and experiences that are available throughout the year.
Pisco and Beers
Pisco is an alcoholic beverage of the brandy family, which is produced by distilling wine from certain grapes in Chile, and is an integral part of the culture and identity of the country. As with wine, pisco has a history that dates back to the 16th century, when Spanish settlers brought grapevines to the colonies and started making wine. However, due to the high taxes and restrictions imposed by the Spanish crown on the wine trade, the colonists began to distill the wine into a stronger and cheaper spirit.
Pisco is usually consumed as a cocktail, such as the famous pisco sour, which is made with pisco, lemon juice, sugar, and sometimes egg whites. Other popular cocktail is piscola, which is pisco mixed with cola. Pisco can also be enjoyed neat or on the rocks, as a digestif or aperitif.
The New Love for Beer
Chile is a country with a long tradition of beer consumption, dating back when German immigrants brought their brewing skills and recipes in the 19th century. Today, Chile is one of the largest beer markets in Latin America, with a per capita consumption of 45 liters per year. However, the beer scene in Chile is not only dominated by the big industrial brands, but also by a vibrant and diverse craft beer movement that has emerged in the last decade.
Craft beer, also known as cerveza artesanal, is beer that is produced by small and independent brewers, using natural ingredients and traditional methods. Craft beer is characterized by its variety of styles, flavors, aromas, and colors, as well as by its quality and innovation. Craft beer lovers appreciate the creativity and passion of the brewers, who experiment with different ingredients, such as fruits, spices, herbs, honey, chocolate, coffee, and even chili peppers.
The craft beer movement in Chile started in the early 2000s, with pioneers who opened their own breweries and pubs in different regions of the country. Since then, the number of craft breweries has grown exponentially, reaching more than 300 in 2023, according to the Asociación de Productores de Cerveza Artesanal de Chile (APCA).
The craft beer culture in Chile is also reflected in the increasing number of festivals, events, tours, and tastings that are organized throughout the year, especially in the summer months. Some of the most important events are the Festival de la Cerveza Artesanal de Valdivia, the Oktoberfest de Malloco, the Feria de la Cerveza Artesanal de Santiago.
Craft beer is more than just a drink, it is a way of life, a form of expression, and a source of identity for many Chileans. It is also a sign of the changing tastes and preferences of the consumers, who are looking for more quality, variety, and innovation in their beverages. Craft beer is a trend that is here to stay, and that will continue to surprise and delight the beer lovers in Chile and beyond.
What are the main circuits of Chilean gastronomy?
Chilean gastronomy is also a way of exploring and discovering the country, its culture, and its people. Chile has several gastronomic circuits, which are routes or destinations that offer a variety of culinary experiences, such as restaurants, markets, festivals, workshops, tours, and tastings. Some of the main gastronomic circuits of Chile are:
- The Wine Route: The wine route is a circuit that covers the main wine regions and valleys of Chile, where you can visit the vineyards, wineries, and cellars, and learn about the history, production, and styles of Chilean wines. You can also taste and buy different types of wines, and enjoy the local cuisine and scenery. Some of the places that you can visit on the wine route are Casablanca, Colchagua, Maipo, Maule, and Elqui, among others.
- The Seafood Route: The seafood route is a circuit that covers the main coastal and insular areas of Chile, where you can enjoy the fresh and diverse seafood that the country offers. You can also learn about the fishing and aquaculture activities, and the traditions and customs of the coastal and insular communities. Some of the places that you can visit on the seafood route are Valparaíso, Chiloé, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, among others.
- The Patagonian Route: The Patagonian route is a circuit that covers the southernmost and most spectacular areas of Chile, where you can experience the gastronomy, nature, and adventure of Patagonia. You can also learn about the history, culture, and challenges of the Patagonian people. Some of the places that you can visit on the Patagonian route are Torres del Paine, Puerto Natales, Coyhaique, Chaitén, and Tierra del Fuego, among others.
- The Santiago Route: The Santiago route is a circuit that covers the capital and largest city of Chile, where you can find a variety of gastronomic options, from traditional to modern, from local to international, from street food to fine dining. You can also visit the markets, museums, parks, and monuments, and enjoy the nightlife, culture, and entertainment of Santiago. Some of the places that you can visit on the Santiago route are La Vega, Barrio Lastarria, Barrio Bellavista, and Barrio Italia, among others.
How to enjoy the best of Chilean gastronomy?
Chilean gastronomy is a treasure that you can enjoy in many ways, whether you are a visitor or a resident, a foodie or a curious, a gourmet or a gourmand. Here are some tips on how to enjoy the best of Chilean gastronomy:
- Be open and adventurous: Chilean gastronomy is diverse and surprising, and you can find something for every taste and preference. Don’t be afraid to try new things, and discover the flavors, textures, and aromas of Chilean cuisine. You might be pleasantly surprised by what you find.
- Be respectful and appreciative: Chilean gastronomy is a reflection of the culture, history, and identity of the country and its people. Respect and appreciate the traditions, customs, and values that are behind each dish, product, and ingredient. You might learn something new and interesting about Chile and its gastronomy.
- Be social and friendly: Chilean gastronomy is a way of sharing and enjoying with others, whether they are family, friends, or strangers. Be social and friendly, and join the table, the conversation, and the celebration. You might make some new friends and have some fun along the way.
- Be curious and informed: Chilean gastronomy is a source of knowledge and understanding of the country, its geography, and its society. Be curious and informed, and ask questions, read, and research about the dishes, products, and regions that you encounter. You might gain some insight and perspective about Chile and its gastronomy.
- Be responsible and sustainable: Chilean gastronomy is a treasure that needs to be preserved and protected for the future generations. Be responsible and sustainable, and support the local producers, respect the environment, and consume responsibly. You might contribute to the development and conservation of Chile and its gastronomy.
Chilean gastronomy is a journey through flavors, history, and culture, that offers a variety of dishes and ingredients that reflect the diversity and unity of the country. Chilean gastronomy is also a way of exploring and discovering the country, its nature, and its people, through different gastronomic circuits that offer a variety of culinary experiences. Chilean gastronomy is a treasure that you can enjoy in many ways, whether you are a visitor or a resident, a foodie or a curious, a gourmet or a gourmand. Chilean gastronomy is more than just food. It is a way of expressing and appreciating the culture, history, and identity of Chile.